Indian Constitution | Development of the Indian Constitution 2nd Page

Indian Constitution | Development of the Indian Constitution 2nd Page

Brief History of the Development of the Indian Constitution

>India Council Act of 18 So 61:

The features of this act are:-

-1.The Executive Council of the Governor General was expanded

2. Departmental system was started by Lord Canning

-3. For the first time, the Governor General was given the power to issue ordinances, the period of such an ordinance was only 6 months.

-4. The Governor-General was given the power to establish Legislative Councils in the Bengal North-West Frontier Province and Punjab.

-5. By this the inclusion of Indian representatives in the process of making laws started. The Viceroy could nominate some Indians as non-official members in the expanded council.

Note:- In 18 to 62 AD, Lord Canning nominated three Indian kings of Banaras, the Maharaja of Patiala and 4 days Rao, to the Legislative Council.

> Act of 18 So 73 AD:

This act provided that the East India Company could be dissolved at any time, from 1 January 18 to 84 AD, the East India Company was formally dissolved.

> 18 to 76 AD Royal title act:

By this act, the Governor General was appointed as the sixth member of the Central Executive and assigned the task of Public Works Department to him by a proclamation on 28 April 18 to 76 AD, Queen Victoria was declared the Empire of India.

> 18 Statements of the Council of India Act:

 The main feature of this act is the number 1 indirect election system was introduced, number two is by this the revenue is also given or the power to debate the budget and ask questions to the executive.

India Council Act of 1989 or say Marley Minto Reforms

-1. For the first time, provision of separate representation was made for the Muslim community, under this, Muslim members could be elected only by Muslim voters, for the first time under the Government of India Act, some elected representation was approved in the legislature.

Thus this act constitutionalized communalism and Lord Minto was known as the father of communal electorate.

-2. Indians were appointed to the executive councils of the Secretary of India and the Governor General.

-3. For the first time, the Central and Provincial Legislative Councils got the right to debate the budget, to present proposals on matters of public interest, to ask supplementary questions and to vote.

-4. Increase in the number of Provincial Legislative Councils

-5. Satyendra Prasad Singha became the first Indian member of the Viceroy's Executive Council, he was made a legal member

-6. Under this act, a provision was made for the Presidency Corporation, Chamber of Commerce, University and a separate representative for the landlords.

Note In 1909 AD, Lord Mautee was the Secretary of State for India in England and Lord Minto was the Viceroy of India.

Government of India Act of 1919 AD or Montagu Chelmsford Reforms:

The main features of this act are:-

 -1. A bicameral legislature was established at the center, the first state council and the second central legislative assembly, the number of members of the state council was 60 in which 34 were elected and their term was 5 years. The number of members of the central legislative assembly was 144, of which 104 were elected and From 40 Nominated.

His tenure was for 3 years, the powers of both the houses were equal, in which only one was in, the lower house had the right to approve the budget.

-2. The diarchy system was changed in the provinces, the father of the diarchy in the provinces was Leo Nasa Kati S.

-3. According to this scheme, the provincial subjects were divided into two categories, reserved and transferred or transferred.

Reserved Subject

 Wealth Land Tax Famine Aid Justice Police Pension Criminal Castes Printing Newspaper Irrigation Water Road Mine Factory Electricity Gas Boiler Workers Welfare Industrial Disputes Motor Vehicles Small Ports and Public Services etc.

Transferred Subject

Education Library Museum Local Autonomous Government Medical Aid Public Works Department Excise Industry Measurement Control of Public Recreation Religious and Charity etc.

-4. The Secretary of India was empowered to appoint the Auditor General of India.

-5. This act made provision for the constitution of a Public Service Commission in India. In 1926 AD, on the recommendation of Lee Commission and 92324, the Central Public Service Commission was formed for the recruitment of civil servants.

-6. According to this act, out of 6 members in the Viceroy's Executive Council, except the commander-in-chief, three members were required to be Indian.

-7. Extended the principle of separate electorates for Sikhs Indian si-yeon Anglo Indians and Europeans on communal lines

-8. In this, for the first time, the Union budget was separated from the state budget.

-9. Under this, a statutory commission was formed, whose task was to submit its report after investigating after 10 years.

-10. In this act, the powers of the Viceroy to issue ordinances in the Central Legislative Assembly were maintained as a rule.

(a) Bills relating to certain subjects required his prior permission to present the idea

(b) He had the power to either make or reserve for the consideration of the Emperor any bill passed by the Indian Legislative Assembly

(c) If he could certify any MLA or grant that was not approved or exceeded by the Legislature, then such certified MLA would become like a bill passed by the Legislature

(d) So that he could make ordinances in case of emergency which had Vedic effect for a temporary period.

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Indian Constitution | Development of the Indian Constitution